Norway is a land full of water. Whether you are walking through an open, mountainous landscape – or deep inside a lush forest – you cannot go far before coming across a lake, river, waterfall, creek, or pond.
Let us take a closer look at the 5 largest Norwegian lakes.
369 km2 in size | 107 km long | 122 metres above sea level | 453 metres maximum depth
Lake Mjøsa stretches across the regions of Hedmark and Oppland, north of Norway’s capital Oslo. It has quite an iconic place in the minds of the Norwegians. Its name may stem from the Old Norse word mer; meaning twinkle or shine.
The lake is both long and wide, and is really an ancient valley, created by the ice-ages, like an inland fjord filled with freshwater. The main inflow enters from the north, via the river Gudbrandsdalslågen, which carries water from the thawing snow in the mountains and valleys along its route.
In the southern end, we find the main outlet, the river Vorma, which later connects to Norway’s largest river, Glomma, where the water finds its way towards the ocean, and the saltwater Oslofjord.
On the banks of Mjøsa, we find the cities of Hamar, Gjøvik and Lillehammer. The latter was the home of the 1992 olympic winter games – and is the location of the television series Lilyhammer.
Mjøsa is surrounded by an undulating and fertile landscape, the so-called mjøsbygdene.
Mjøsa is also the home of Skibladner, the world’s oldest paddle steamer still in regular operation. Her maiden voyage was on 2 August 1856, and she has sunk and been saved twice: in 1937 and 1967. Among the Norwegians, she also goes by the name «Mjøsas hvite svane» – the white swan of Mjøsa.
2. Røssvatnet – Reevhtse (Southern Sami)
218 km2 in size | 383 metres above sea level | 240 metres maximum depth
The size of Røssvatnet was originally 190 km2, but after a dam was built in 1958, it grew to 218 km2. The lake is located in the region of Nordland.
The main outlet is the river Røssåga, which runs north, and ends up in the saltwater Sørfjord, at a place called Bjerka.
Røssvatnet is surrounded by lush forests and barren mountains. Archaeologists have found evidence of ancient settlements here, stretching as far back as the Stone age.
For centuries, Southern Sami family groups were the main human presence in the surrounding landscape. Norse settlers cleared land and established farms here from the 1700s and onwards. The farmers lost sections of the cultivated land in connection with the building of the dam.
203 km2 in size | 662 metres above sea level | 130 metres maximum depth
Femunden stretches across the regions of Hedmark and Trøndelag – and has rich fish resources. It is located south-east of the old mining town Røros. The main outlet is the river Gløta, to the south.
In the 1700s, a timber floating canal was built from the lake’s northern end, leading through various rivers and smaller lakes to the river Glomma, potentially taking the timber as far south as the cities of Sarpsborg and Fredrikstad.
Just like Røssvatnet, Femunden is surrounded by forests and mountains. To the east you find Femundsmarka national park, which visitnorway.com describes as follows: «Femundsmarka national park is one of the largest continuous, unspoilt wilderness regions in Southern Scandinavia. A great area for canoeing and fishing. The Norwegian Trekking Association has selected it as one of the three best hiking areas in Norway.»
There is an active Southern Sami presence in the area, mainly to the east. The Blokkodden wilderness museum has recreated a historical and traditional Sami settlement that is well worth a visit.
The passenger ferry Fæmunden II operates during the summer months, transporting tourists and cargo across the mighty lake.
141 km2 in size | 134 metres above sea level | 131 metres maximum depth
Randsfjorden is located in the region of Oppland, south-west of Mjøsa, and north-west of Oslo. It is surrounded by hills, forests, and agricultural land.
The lake is long and narrow, and the main inflow of water comes from the northwestern river Etna. The main outlet in the south is the Randselva, which leads the water towards the next lake on our list: Tyrifjorden.
Randsfjorden – as the name indicates – is a so-called fjord-lake – or a moraine-dammed lake. This kind of freshwater lakes were created as the ice melted after the last ice-age. The melting ice left mounds of rocks and dirt, acting like dams in the landscape.
In his sagas, Snorri Sturluson recorded how Halvdan Svarte drowned in Randsfjorden, when the horse and sleigh he was travelling with went through the ice. Halvdan was the father of Harald Hårfagre, or Harald Fairhair, known as the first King of Norway.
137 km2 in size | 63 metres above sea level | 295 metres maximum depth
Tyrifjorden is located in the region of Buskerud, north-west of Oslo. Just like its cousin, Randsfjorden to the north, it is surrounded by hills, forests, and agricultural land.
Tyrifjorden is also a moraine-dammed lake, but has a very different shape, with its four arms.
The main outlet is Drammenselva, the river that leads the water down to the saltwater Oslofjord.
The name comes from tyri, which is resin-impregnated heartwood from the pine tree. Tyri is an excellent firewood, and was often used to make torches, and for the extraction of tar.
The 5 runners-up
- Snåsavatnet | 122 km2 in size | Trøndelag
- Tunnsjøen | 101 km2 in size | Trøndelag
- Limingen – Lyjmede | 92 km2 in size | Trøndelag
- Blåsjø | 81 km2 in size | Rogaland and Agder
- Altevatnet | 80 km2 in size | Troms
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Main sources: Store norske leksikon snl.no | The Norwegian Mapping Authority – kartverket.no